Inside the New York City Loft Board Lofty Living

Ever since New York City was New Amsterdam, landlords have made extra money by converting unused space in their buildings into residential lofts. While many apartment-seekers gravitated toward these conversions, artists, bohemians, and other creative types were the quintessential tenants—the large, open-plan loft spaces made ideal live/work studios, and they were often to be found in emerging neighborhoods where rents were relatively cheap, even if amenities were rustic.

Converting space from a manufacturing/commercial purpose to residential usage presents certain challenges when it comes to New York City’s zoning laws and regulations. While some loft landlords and their tenants carved out comfortable, safe living spaces in cavernous industrial buildings, others maintained properties that were little better than squats—with no running water, rickety freight elevators, haphazard electrical wiring, and a host of other problems. Cue the Loft Board.

The New York City Loft Board was established in 1982, and charged with the responsibility of bringing loft housing under regulation. The New York City Council enacted Article 7-C of the Multiple Dwelling Law (MDL), also known as the Loft Law, which directed the legalization of illegal residential lofts into “interim multiple dwellings,” or IMDs. The law affected buildings previously used for commercial or manufacturing purposes that had at least three units occupied by residences between April 1980 through December 1981.

The Loft Law

According to the Loft Board’s website, “by definition, an IMD building lacks a residential certificate of occupancy.” Thus, the purpose of the Loft Law, according to the website, “is to bring buildings illegally converted to residential use into compliance with state and city housing laws relating to health, safety, and fire protection.”

The law also serves to protect tenants from eviction and out-of-control rent increases until their building can be issued a Certificate of Occupancy (C of O), which is necessary to insure a building’s compliance with applicable building codes and other housing laws. In order to obtain a revised C of O that would allow residential use of their property, a loft building owner must bring the building up to the city’s residential code, being sure to follow the construction requirements set forth in the Loft Law and New York City Building Code.


Related Articles

First Project Under City's New Affordable Housing Plan Breaks Ground

Part of the ‘Open Door’ Project

Study: High Housing Costs Hurt Quality of Life

1.4 Million New York Households Were “Severely Burdened” by the Costs of Renting or Owning in 2017.

3 People in Charge of Application Process at Mitchell-Lama Co-op Indicted

Defendants Allegedly Accepted Bribes From People Who Wanted the Affordable Units

An Antidote to NYC’s Affordable Housing Crisis?

Mandatory Inclusion Policy Has Its Share of Criticism

Study: Most New Yorkers Are Shut Out of Buying a Home

Real Estate Investors and High Home Prices Are to Blame, Says Report

421-a Tax Abatement Spared Via Revised Rent Regulation Bill

Developers to Retain Tax Break for Affordable Housing in New Construction – For Now



  • Having intimate knowledge of "N.Y. city Landlords" I have great respect for the tough job Ms. Alexander has taken on.
  • Hey, I'm a french architecture student. I'm doing a project about loft. I would like to know if it's possible to get in touch with owners and also tenants of loft. It would really help if yes. I look forward to the opportunity of discussing again. Thank you! Bye, Léa.
  • Helpful writing . I loved the insight , Does anyone know where my business could possibly locate a fillable WA DSHS 14-078 document to use ?